An incredible deal has been written about and made a lot of in alternative archaeology books about how and why our technologically primitive ancestors had been in a position to carve out, transport and erect massive multi-ton stone blocks into megalithic monuments of nicely, monumental measurement. The implication is that since there is no doubting the existence of these constructions, our ancestors must of in truth possessed a sophisticated know-how or had help from those that did (i.e. – ‘ancient astronauts’). That runs opposite to the standard mannequin of scholarly archaeology. However the questions stay.

Perhaps I’d better say what I imply by large multi-ton stone blocks. I imply stones which can be no less than several tons in weight, as much as the largest known carved (however nonetheless in-situ and unused) stone block weighing in at roughly 1250 tons. That’s not the document nonetheless for there is, apparently, a stele base in China that weighs in at sixteen,250 tons. I mean these are stones that are not trivial to toss around, even right now. And whereas not all major continents and countries have megalithic stone monuments, like North America (USA & Canada) or Australia (together with New Zealand) that still leaves loads of places, and well-known places, that do.

How and why these megaliths have been constructed isn’t any trivial matter. For our ancestors to go to such lengths and expend such efforts, properly these stone monuments were obviously crucial to them, and it’s essential to us to figure out how and why they did it. Textile Utilizing large stone blocks instead of wood and even small stone blocks or bricks must have served a function regardless of the higher hardships involved. So, why did our ancient ancestors want large stones; and how did they handle them?

As to the why, presumably, for starters, when you determine to use stone, then it’s important sufficient a fabric serving a purpose(s) that necessitates lasting for all practical functions an ‘eternity’. Should you construct one thing to final, no less than back then, you employ stone, the bigger the better. However for what function did the ancients want such megalithic giants?

Points Arising: Purpose

These ancient societies or cultures spent an awful lot of sources to construct things that had been comparatively peripheral to their fundamental wants. The Easter Islanders could survive with out those Moai statues; historic Egypt would still have been a ‘superpower’ even with out those pyramids, the Giza Sphinx, massive statues of some New Kingdom pharaohs (like Ramesses II – usually called Ramesses the great), stele and obelisks. The Parthenon in Athens was just a shrine to one of the Greek deities (Athena), and comparable observations could be extended to the thousands of other monumental megalithic temples and monuments around the world which had been primarily ceremonial in operate.

It’s troublesome to figure out how Stonehenge contributed to the fundamental survival wants of the native inhabitants – you needn’t construct one thing of that magnitude just to tell you what season it’s! If you must mark, say the Summer Solstice, all you need have is a traditionally and permanently well marked and easily identified Level A, where you can observe some mounted construction like a rock on the Horizon, that’s Point B, and when the Sun arises straight over Level B, that’s the longest day of the year. There is no want to engage in any sort of backbreaking toil or building no matter.

If a society can afford to spend effort and time and cash on secondary projects, say like in modern society varied public artwork works in comparison with main projects like roads (transport), colleges (training) and hospitals (well being care), then it’s important to conclude that that society was nicely off on condition that they may divert fundamental resources from primary projects to undertake projects of a secondary nature. Both that, or that which appears to us as comparatively trivial or unimportant like Stonehenge or Carnac (Brittany, France) or those Easter Island statues or the Sphinx actually held a main perform incomprehensible to us however which rivalled in importance housing and insuring sufficient food provides and related things vital to their day-to-day survival.

Issues Arising: Logistics

There’s also the logistics drawback. You want a large workforce that had to be fed and clothed and housed and cared for, especially fed. There wasn’t exactly a close by supermarket where limitless supplies might be purchased. Additional, while employed on these quarrying, transporting and building initiatives the workers couldn’t be gainfully employed elsewhere to provide basics like looking and gathering for meals or even tending to domesticated livestock and agricultural crops. The staff couldn’t have been used for serving in the army, or any other useful and mandatory activity. All of this carving, transporting and development were not just busy work designed to maintain the rabble off the streets and out of hassle, and slave labour wasn’t usually in vogue either, opposite to many standard Hollywood photos. Of course in the case of the Giza Sphinx, it was carved, however wasn’t transported, nor constructed per say. Still, the logistics in caving that massive stone statue from a rock outcrop would have been enormous, and the explanation(s) for doing so of huge significance to the powers-that-be.

Points Arising: Ways and Means: The How!

Though our focus and curiosity is commonly on the construction section, as in how was that achieved, that’s usually only one-third of the arduous yards. Take these 2.Three million blocks that make up the great Pyramid at Giza. Phase One: every block had to be carved to dimension. You simply didn’t hack out rocks at random and put them in place. That carving alone is tough yakka and helped sustain a state of full employment. Laborious yakka Part Two was transporting these carved blocks from the assorted quarries – some native, some not – to motion city, the Giza Plateau. More full employment. The how in Section One and Two is not often all that mysterious – just bloody exhausting backbreaking work. Anyway, again to the development – Section Three.

To me the most important mystery is just not a lot the way you get one thing from the horizontal to the vertical, like an obelisk, (that was demonstrated on the NOVA Tv sequence “Secrets and techniques of Misplaced Empires”), however how you get an enormous multi-ton stone block raised straight up, say 20 to 30 to forty or extra ft to act as a lintel, like those at Stonehenge or on all these Greco-Roman and Egyptian temples, like say the Parthenon. One can at all times conceive of constructing sand or dirt ramps to haul massive lintels upwards into place, therefore eradicating the sand or dirt after-the-reality, however in case you give it some thought, such infrastructure is a way more labour intensive and an all-round main mission in its own right. For example, constructing a sand ramp to haul these multi-ton stone blocks for the Giza pyramids would require a better quantity of material to be put into place (and of course later eliminated) than that of the quantity of material required to construct the pyramid in query in the primary place. After all if the venture is that necessary, and if there is just no other approach – effectively there’s at all times these exhausting choices.

To illustrate for example of simply how bad our knowledge of our remote historic ancestors really is, here’s a trilogy of extracts from classical scholar Nigel Rodgers in his text “The Ancient Greek World: Folks and Places” (2010):

“[T]he Greeks relied on their mental powers and their remarkably expert craftsmanship to erect their buildings. Few particulars survive of their actual constructing methods, however.”

“Cranes have been almost actually used to help raise the masonry as much as the temples throughout development, although no traces of such equipment have been discovered.”

“How the Athenians assembled these temples, and indeed housed and fed the massive, highly skilled workforce required to build them, so efficiently is unknown.”

So, now let’s take a look at alternate options as supplied in some alt-archaeological texts.

One principle generally seen in alt-archaeological tomes is that these large blocks did not start out as massive blocks, similar to a brick would not begin out as a brick, but slightly they have been poured into place, in a mould, like concrete or cement. Sorry, but fashionable petrologists’ could simply detect such. Typically in actual fact the quarry from the place the stone originated might be exactly recognized, though that usually raises the question then of transport, for the reason that distances twixt quarry site and development site could be hundreds of miles. That’s a difficulty that applies to Stonehenge as well as a number of the stonework for the Giza pyramids.

If you actually want to go far-out, star-scout, let’s strive antigravity! Anti-gravity is just obtainable in a single kind, darkish power. Darkish energy is that mysterious antigravity force that’s inflicting the expanding Universe to carry on expanding at ever sooner and faster rates, in defiance of gravity which ought to slow the expansion price down. Alas, dark vitality, which whereas dominant over the dimensions of the whole Universe, is trivial locally relative to Earth’s intense gravity subject.

Alt-archaeology texts are stuffed with references to sound vitality that levitates (negates gravity) and thus massive blocks of stone will be floated round and put into place even with just the oomph of an infant, simply by making the appropriate sound at the appropriate degree.. Sound after all will be focused. We all know and respect the science of acoustics in theatres. Sound can shatter objects, effectively at the very least comparatively fragile objects like wine glasses when subjected to the professional projections of the educated human voice (or equivalent). Nonetheless, for those who crunch the numbers, the power required to negate gravity is means outside the realm of which sound energy can muster. Contemplating the cacophony of sounds the human race produces each day, you’d think that all of the related parts would come together somewhere, sometime and ‘just so’ as to produce levitation in one thing, levitation noticed and photographed for the report. Alas, not so.

Jigsaw Puzzles

In some constructions, it is not only a matter of manipulating huge however irregular stone blocks but fitting them collectively like a jigsaw puzzle, outcomes which can be instantly obvious at websites around the world, like these from the Incan Empire. Precision carving in stone using solely different stone or copper tools will not be simple by any stretch of the imagination. It is not simple; it is extremely exhausting and time consuming work. Double that when all of your blocks aren’t a typical square block dimension and form.

What Do Our Ancestors Say?

Pity that although the ancients left all method of photos behind of their every day lives and tradition, I find it wonderful that regardless of all of those multi-1000’s of pictures from ancient Greece, Rome, Egypt, the Americas, and many others. not one reveals an actual half-completed or partly constructed monument, like a pyramid, or a temple just like the Parthenon that is under construction, or no matter. That’s highly anomalous IMHO, though there are photos of ancient Egyptians transporting large stone blocks.

Nevertheless, even a few of these historic cultures were puzzled as to how their even more historical ancestors achieved these megalithic ‘missions impossible’.

There’s one thing very odd when the natural descendents of ‘primitive’ natives resort to tales akin to sci-fi or science-fantasy to account for how their ancestors constructed, transported and erected massive stone monoliths.

Easter Islanders say that their Moai statues walked by themselves from quarry to their last resting (truly standing) place. Who am I to argue with first hand or on-the-spot observations, except Thor Heyerdahl’s “Aku-Aku” group completed the same with much less elegant but with pure grunt energy. Strolling stone statues are only a bit too far into the “Twilight Zone” for consolation. Really for some cause Easter Islanders in some unspecified time in the future downed their stone tools and abandoned their statue constructions for causes not totally clear other than priorities altered. The abandoned unfinished statues can still be seen right this moment, lying in place, now lengthy neglected.

Also within the Pacific region, Nan Modal is an historic metropolis of about zero.Seventy five sq. kilometres off the coast of the island of Pohnpei in what’s in the present day termed Micronesia. The city is comprised of artificial islands criss-crossed by canals, and thus often referred to as the Venice of the Pacific. Those ‘islands’ however are built up of massive megalithic stone walls up to 25 ft high. How so? Effectively the stones had been carried on site on the backs of dragons apparently. To be honest, that makes as much sense as anything.

I noted above that allegedly sound might levitate massive stone blocks. That concept or statement is present in each South America and historic Egypt – huge stones are by some means lifted and transported by sound. I still assume that’s extremely suspect and I believe scientists would need an actual fashionable-day demonstration. I do know I’d.

Tentative Conclusions

As I noted above, it is not the caving or the transport that is the actual challenge, nor going from the horizontal to the vertical that is a real downside, fairly the problem is lifting massive stones straight up that I particularly puzzle over.

The puzzlement pertains to our personal use of stones in building projects. We might I assume, if we wished to, construct our buildings out of mega-ton blocks of stone. But we do not. Your own home, if it contains building stones at all, are stones which are most likely akin to weights of just a number of pounds, perhaps dozens of pounds; hardly tons.

So do we now have a serious mystery here? Properly yes, particularly when in comparison with trendy society as famous immediately above. In our trendy high-tech age, once we do use stone as a building material, it is in manageable bits and pieces. We do not build our houses or office buildings or ballparks or monuments out of multi-ton to multi-hundred ton stone blocks as the ancients did. But when obligation called, like when Abu Simbel had to be relocated to a higher elevation when the Aswan Excessive Dam was constructed giving rise to Lake Nasser and the flooding of the historic site, even using modern know-how it was still a significant and large effort.

A Potential Answer

Maybe we are able to kill two anomalous birds with one hypothetical stone.

Common One: As we observe, from the Americas (Mesoamerica and South America a minimum of); all through Europe and the Close to and Center East, Egypt and other elements of Africa, even unto Asia and the Pacific region, there are historical megalithic constructions using stone blocks in the multi mega-ton range. How did the ancients carve, transport, raise and place such huge stone blocks?

Universal Two: Additionally around the globe, there is a universal theme of giants, from the Cyclopes in Greco-Roman cultures, to Biblical giants to – properly you name the culture and I will guarantee they may have giants as a core component in their mythologies. For samplers, this is just a partial list of giants. Nicely there’s Angrboda (Norse), Argos (Greek), Balor (Irish), Biloko (Zaire), Bungisngis (Philippines), the Cyclopes (Greek), Geryon (Greek), the Gigantes (Greek), Goliath (Biblical), Grendel (Anglo-Saxon), the Hecatonchires (Greek), Hrungnir (Norse), Humbaba (Mesopotamia), the Nephilim (Biblical), Skrymir (Norse), Suttung (Norse), Talos (Greek), the Titans (Greek), and Ymir (Norse). Further, you could have all manner of giant trolls and ogres (Scandinavian), numerous big apemen just like the Yeti and Bigfoot/Sasquatch and quite a few others, as effectively as the Giants of Cornwall (led by Gogmagog).

Well, what’s ‘mission: inconceivable’ for a younger little one, is possible for an adult; what’s ‘mission: not possible’ for grownup people is likely to be potential for a giant(s). An enormous twice as massive as a typical human could have eight instances the muscle power, since muscles are three-D, doubling in length, width and peak; and thusly 2 x 2 x 2 = 8.

What Do Our Ancestors Say Revisited?

Historic Greeks typically attributed numerous huge stone constructions to the Cyclopes, as an example. Such huge structures are termed the Cyclopean partitions since the Cyclopes and only the Cyclopes could have constructed these buildings. Perseus had them chargeable for building the walls of Mycenae, including the Lion Gate; Proitos attributed them building the partitions of Tiryns. The medieval Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus cited the Roman ruins as evidence that giants must as soon as have walked the Earth. And who constructed the giant’s Causeway on the Northern Irish Coast?

Is that this too far out? I am open to different options, but at least it would not require high-tech alien help, unless after all these worldwide mythological giants, like the Cyclopes, had been aliens!

Appendix: A couple of notable megalithic monuments.

1) Some unfinished in-situ megaliths.

*Baalbek (Lebanon) has two unfinished stones weighing in at a thousand to 1250 tons apiece.

*There’s an unfinished Egyptian obelisk at Assuan that is all up involves roughly 1100 tons.

2) Some finished and transported megaliths.


*Stonehenge: some stones are as much as forty tons.

*The Avebury stone circle, England, has as its largest stone one over forty tons.

*The famous fortress of Mycenae, Greece has stones near one hundred tons in weight.

*The Parthenon in Athens, Greece has some of its largest stones weighing in at 10 tons.

Pacific Region

*These Easter Island (Rapa Nui to the locals) Moai can weigh as much as 70, even one as much as 86 tons.

Ancient Egypt

*The Colossi of Memnon are two Egyptian statues of Pharaoh Amenhotep III coming in at seven-hundred tons each.

*Ramesses II (Ramesses the nice) was not shy about erecting statues to honour himself. One in every of his quite a few dozens of monumental statues commissioned to picture self (at Luxor) – a hundred tons price of stone. However that’s featherweight class.

*Ramesses II was solely just getting warmed up. There’s a statue at Thebes, Egypt, part of the Ramessum, the mortuary temple of the pharaoh in question, of one thousand tons. Now that is heavyweight standing.

*Egyptian obelisks weren’t minuscule. There’s one at 227 tons (Luxor); one at 328 tons (Karnak).

*Nice Pyramid at Giza, Egypt is well often called overkill when it comes to constructing a tomb. Though the common weight of every stone block is ‘only’ 2.5 tons, the biggest slabs comprising the burial chamber, come in at eighty tons.

*Other than the nice Pyramid, other Egyptian pyramids, the truth is most, if not all other, Egyptian pyramids have some monolithic blocks of over 20 tons, together with monolithic roof slabs, plugs and burial vaults, some of which weigh in at over one hundred tons.

South and Central America

*These well known however mysterious Olmec heads in Mesoamerica aren’t trivial works when carved right down to some 50 tons all up.

*The Inca city of Machu Picchu, Peru has large stones part and parcel of its construction weighing in from 20 to 50 tons apeice.

*There’s a really well-known Aztec calendar stone at Tenochtitlan, Mexico that weighs significantly more than the wall calendar you hang up at house. Weight, 24 tons.

*Palenque, Mexico is a famous Mayan site, particularly due to Erich Von Daniken. The most important stones on site weigh 12 to 15 tons.

Additional recommended readings

Childress, David Hatcher; Expertise of the Gods: The Unimaginable Sciences of the Ancients; Adventures Limitless Press, Kempton, Illinois; 2000:

De Camp, L. Sprague; The Ancient Engineers; Ballantine Books, New York; 1974:

De Camp, L. Sprague & De Camp; Catherine C; Citadels of Mystery; Fontana/Collins, London; 1972:

Hancock, Graham; Fingerprints of the Gods: A Quest for the start and the tip; Mandarin, London; 1996:

Hancock, Graham & Faiia, Santha; Heaven’s Mirror: Quest for the Misplaced Civilization; Penguin Books, London; 1999:

Nationwide Geographic Society; Mysteries of Mankind: Earth’s Unexplained Landmarks; National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.; 1992:

National Geographic Society; Mysteries of the Ancient World; Nationwide Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.; 1979:

Von Daniken, Erich; Chariots of the Gods?; Souvenir Press, London; 1969:

Von Daniken, Erich; Gods from Outer Space; Souvenir Press, London; 1970:

Additional viewings:

NOVA; Secrets and techniques of Lost Empires; PBS/WGBH, Boston; 2006:

NOVA; Secrets and techniques of Lost Empires II; PBS/WGBH, Boston; 2008:

Garment-Dyed Membrana TC Light Jacket In BlackThere’s additionally been dozens of books/movies written/produced specifically concerning the archaeological mysteries of Stonehenge, ancient Egyptian monuments together with the pyramids, Easter Island, the ruins of Mesoamerica and South America, etc. Seek the advice of your native library.

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