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Stoned, For All Eternity

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A terrific deal has been written about and made a lot of in alternative archaeology books about how and why our technologically primitive ancestors have been able to carve out, transport and erect massive multi-ton stone blocks into megalithic monuments of properly, monumental measurement. The implication is that since there is no such thing as a doubting the existence of these constructions, our ancestors should of in actual fact possessed an advanced technology or had assistance from those that did (i.e. – ‘historical astronauts’). That runs contrary to the standard model of scholarly archaeology. However the questions stay.

Perhaps I’d better say what I imply by large multi-ton stone blocks. I mean stones which might be at the very least a number of tons in weight, as much as the most important identified carved (but still in-situ and unused) stone block weighing in at roughly 1250 tons. That’s not the report nonetheless for there’s, apparently, a stele base in China that weighs in at sixteen,250 tons. I mean these are stones that are not trivial to toss round, even as we speak. And while not all main continents and countries have megalithic stone monuments, like North America (USA & Canada) or Australia (including New Zealand) that still leaves a variety of places, and well-known locations, that do.

How and why these megaliths had been constructed isn’t any trivial matter. For our ancestors to go to such lengths and expend such efforts, well these stone monuments have been obviously essential to them, and it is essential to us to figure out how and why they did it. Using massive stone blocks as an alternative of wood or even small stone blocks or bricks must have served a goal despite the greater hardships concerned. So, why did our historical ancestors want large stones; and the way did they handle them

As to the why, presumably, for starters, should you determine to use stone, then it is vital sufficient a material serving a purpose(s) that necessitates lasting for all sensible purposes an ‘eternity’. If you happen to build something to last, no less than back then, you utilize stone, the bigger the better. However for what purpose did the ancients want such megalithic giants

Points Arising: Function
These ancient societies or cultures spent an terrible lot of resources to construct issues that have been relatively peripheral to their basic needs. The Easter Islanders may survive with out those Moai statues; historical Egypt would nonetheless have been a ‘superpower’ even without those pyramids, the Giza Sphinx, massive statues of some New Kingdom pharaohs (like Ramesses II – often referred to as Ramesses the nice), stele and obelisks. The Parthenon in Athens was only a shrine to one of the Greek deities (Athena), and comparable observations could be prolonged to the 1000’s of other monumental megalithic temples and monuments world wide which were primarily ceremonial in perform.

It’s troublesome to figure out how Stonehenge contributed to the essential survival needs of the local inhabitants – you needn’t construct one thing of that magnitude simply to tell you what season it’s! If you want to mark, say the Summer time Solstice, all you need have is a traditionally and permanently nicely marked and simply identified Level A, where you’ll be able to observe some fixed structure like a rock on the Horizon, that is Point B, and when the Solar arises instantly over Level B, that is the longest day of the 12 months. There is no want to engage in any sort of backbreaking toil or building no matter.

If a society can afford to spend time and effort and cash on secondary projects, say like in modern society various public artwork works in comparison with primary initiatives like roads (transport), colleges (schooling) and hospitals (well being care), then you need to conclude that that society was effectively off on condition that they may divert fundamental sources from major initiatives to undertake initiatives of a secondary nature. Both that, or that which seems to us as relatively trivial or unimportant like Stonehenge or Carnac (Brittany, France) or those Easter Island statues or the Sphinx actually held a primary operate incomprehensible to us but which rivalled in significance housing and insuring enough food supplies and comparable issues important to their day-to-day survival.

Points Arising: Logistics
There’s additionally the logistics problem. You need a large workforce that had to be fed and clothed and housed and cared for, particularly fed. There wasn’t precisely a close by supermarket where endless supplies may very well be bought. Additional, while employed on these quarrying, transporting and building projects the workers could not be gainfully employed elsewhere to offer fundamentals like searching and gathering for meals or even tending to domesticated livestock and agricultural crops. The employees couldn’t have been used for serving in the army, or some other helpful and mandatory task. All of this carving, transporting and building weren’t just busy work designed to maintain the rabble off the streets and out of trouble, and slave labour wasn’t usually in vogue either, opposite to many common Hollywood pictures. After all in the case of the Giza Sphinx, it was carved, but wasn’t transported, nor constructed per say. Nonetheless, the logistics in caving that huge stone statue from a rock outcrop would have been enormous, and the reason(s) for doing so of huge significance to the powers-that-be.

Issues Arising: Methods and Means: The How!
Although our focus and interest is often on the development part, as in how was that completed, that is normally just one-third of the hard yards. Take these 2.Three million blocks that make up the good Pyramid at Giza. Part One: every block had to be carved to dimension. You just did not hack out rocks at random and put them in place. That carving alone is hard yakka and helped sustain a state of full employment. Hard yakka Phase Two was transporting those carved blocks from the assorted quarries – some native, some not – to motion metropolis, the Giza Plateau. More full employment. The how in Phase One and Two isn’t usually all that mysterious – just bloody arduous backbreaking work. Anyway, again to the construction – Part Three.

To me the main mystery just isn’t a lot the way you get something from the horizontal to the vertical, like an obelisk, (that was demonstrated on the NOVA Television collection “Secrets and techniques of Misplaced Empires”), however the way you get a massive multi-ton stone block raised straight up, say 20 to 30 to 40 or extra ft to act as a lintel, like these at Stonehenge or on all these Greco-Roman and Egyptian temples, like say the Parthenon. One can all the time conceive of constructing sand or dirt ramps to haul huge lintels upwards into place, hence eradicating the sand or dirt after-the-reality, but in case you give it some thought, such infrastructure is a far more labour intensive and an all-spherical major project in its own proper. For example, constructing a sand ramp to haul these multi-ton stone blocks for the Giza pyramids would require a higher volume of material to be put into place (and of course later eliminated) than that of the volume of material required to construct the pyramid in question in the first place. Of course if the undertaking is that important, and if there’s simply no different manner – effectively there’s all the time these exhausting options.

As an instance as an example of simply how unhealthy our information of our remote historical ancestors actually is, here’s a trilogy of extracts from classical scholar Nigel Rodgers in his textual content “The Historic Greek World: Folks and Locations” (2010):

“[T]he Greeks relied on their intellectual powers and their remarkably skilled craftsmanship to erect their buildings. Few particulars survive of their actual building strategies, nonetheless.”

“Cranes had been almost definitely used to assist elevate the masonry up to the temples throughout construction, although no traces of such machinery have been discovered.”

“How the Athenians assembled these temples, and certainly housed and fed the large, highly expert workforce required to build them, so efficiently is unknown.”

So, now let’s take a look at options as supplied in some alt-archaeological texts.
One idea sometimes seen in alt-archaeological tomes is that these large blocks did not start out as large blocks, mens stone island hat just like a brick doesn’t start out as a brick, however fairly they had been poured into place, in a mould, like concrete or cement. Sorry, however modern petrologists’ could simply detect such. Usually in truth the quarry from the place the stone originated may be exactly identified, although that often raises the question then of transport, since the distances twixt quarry site and building site could be hundreds of miles. That is a difficulty that applies to Stonehenge as well as a number of the stonework for the Giza pyramids.

If you really wish to go far-out, star-scout, let’s attempt antigravity! Anti-gravity is barely obtainable in one form, dark vitality. Darkish power is that mysterious antigravity drive that’s inflicting the expanding Universe to keep on expanding at ever faster and sooner rates, in defiance of gravity which should sluggish the growth rate down. Alas, dark energy, which while dominant over the size of the complete Universe, is trivial domestically relative to Earth’s intense gravity subject.

Alt-archaeology texts are filled with references to sound energy that levitates (negates gravity) and thus huge blocks of stone may be floated around and put into place even with simply the oomph of an infant, just by making the appropriate sound at the suitable level.. Sound after all can be targeted. We all know and admire the science of acoustics in theatres. Sound can shatter objects, well a minimum of relatively fragile objects like wine glasses when subjected to the professional projections of the educated human voice (or equivalent). However, should you crunch the numbers, the energy required to negate gravity is approach outside the realm of which sound vitality can muster. Considering the cacophony of sounds the human race produces day by day, you’d assume that all of the relevant parts would come collectively somewhere, someday and ‘just so’ as to supply levitation in one thing, levitation noticed and photographed for the report. Alas, not so.

Jigsaw Puzzles
In some constructions, it is not only a matter of manipulating large however irregular stone blocks but fitting them together like a jigsaw puzzle, outcomes which can be immediately obvious at sites world wide, like those from the Incan Empire. Precision carving in stone utilizing only different stone or copper tools will not be easy by any stretch of the imagination. It isn’t easy; it is extremely exhausting and time consuming work. Double that when all your blocks aren’t a regular square block measurement and form.

What Do Our Ancestors Say
Pity that although the ancients left all method of pictures behind of their each day lives and tradition, I find it wonderful that despite all of those multi-hundreds of pictures from ancient Greece, Rome, Egypt, the Americas, and so on. not one exhibits an precise half-finished or partly constructed monument, like a pyramid, or a temple like the Parthenon that’s under construction, or whatever. If you enjoyed this information and you would certainly such as to receive more info relating to Official kindly go to our webpage. That’s highly anomalous IMHO, though there are pictures of historical Egyptians transporting huge stone blocks.

However, even some of these ancient cultures were puzzled as to how their much more historic ancestors achieved these megalithic ‘missions impossible’.

There’s something very odd when the pure descendents of ‘primitive’ natives resort to tales akin to sci-fi or science-fantasy to account for how their ancestors constructed, transported and erected huge stone monoliths.

Easter Islanders say that their Moai statues walked by themselves from quarry to their last resting (actually standing) place. Who am I to argue with first hand or on-the-spot observations, except Thor Heyerdahl’s “Aku-Aku” workforce completed the same with less elegant but with pure grunt power. Strolling stone statues are just a bit too far into the “Twilight Zone” for consolation. Truly for some cause Easter Islanders at some point downed their stone tools and abandoned their statue constructions for causes not totally clear other than priorities altered. The abandoned unfinished statues can nonetheless be seen as we speak, lying in place, now long neglected.

Additionally in the Pacific area, Nan Modal is an historic metropolis of about zero.Seventy five sq. kilometres off the coast of the island of Pohnpei in what’s today termed Micronesia. Town is comprised of synthetic islands criss-crossed by canals, and thus often referred to because the Venice of the Pacific. These ‘islands’ however are constructed up of huge megalithic stone walls up to 25 ft high. How so Nicely the stones had been carried on site on the backs of dragons apparently. To be sincere, that makes as much sense as anything else.

I noted above that allegedly sound could levitate huge stone blocks. That idea or remark is present in both South America and ancient Egypt – huge stones are one way or the other lifted and transported by sound. I nonetheless assume that’s highly suspect and I think scientists would want an precise modern-day demonstration. I do know I might.

Tentative Conclusions
As I noted above, it is not the caving or the transport that’s the actual challenge, nor going from the horizontal to the vertical that’s a real downside, rather the difficulty is lifting massive stones straight up that I particularly puzzle over.

The puzzlement relates to our own use of stones in building initiatives. We could I assume, if we needed to, construct our buildings out of mega-ton blocks of stone. But we don’t. Your home, if it comprises constructing stones in any respect, are stones which can be in all probability akin to weights of simply several pounds, perhaps dozens of pounds; hardly tons.

So do we’ve got a serious thriller here Well sure, particularly when compared to modern society as famous instantly above. In our modern high-tech age, when we do use stone as a development material, it’s in manageable bits and items. We do not construct our homes or office buildings or ballparks or monuments out of multi-ton to multi-hundred ton stone blocks as the ancients did. But when obligation known as, like when Abu Simbel needed to be relocated to the next elevation when the Aswan High Dam was constructed giving rise to Lake Nasser and the flooding of the historic site, even utilizing modern expertise it was nonetheless a major and big effort.

A Possible Resolution
Maybe we can kill two anomalous birds with one hypothetical stone.

Universal One: As we notice, from the Americas (Mesoamerica and South America not less than); throughout Europe and the Close to and Center East, Egypt and other components of Africa, even unto Asia and the Pacific area, there are historic megalithic constructions using stone blocks within the multi mega-ton vary. How did the ancients carve, transport, raise and place such large stone blocks

Common Two: Additionally around the world, there is a universal theme of giants, from the Cyclopes in Greco-Roman cultures, to Biblical giants to – nicely you name the culture and I will guarantee they can have giants as a core element of their mythologies. For samplers, here’s just a partial list of giants. Properly there’s Angrboda (Norse), Argos (Greek), Balor (Irish), Biloko (Zaire), Bungisngis (Philippines), the Cyclopes (Greek), Geryon (Greek), the Gigantes (Greek), Goliath (Biblical), Grendel (Anglo-Saxon), the Hecatonchires (Greek), Hrungnir (Norse), Humbaba (Mesopotamia), the Nephilim (Biblical), Skrymir (Norse), Suttung (Norse), Talos (Greek), the Titans (Greek), and Ymir (Norse). Further, you will have all manner of giant trolls and ogres (Scandinavian), varied big apemen like the Yeti and Bigfoot/Sasquatch and quite a few others, as properly as the Giants of Cornwall (led by Gogmagog).

Nicely, what’s ‘mission: not possible’ for a younger child, is possible for an adult; what’s ‘mission: unimaginable’ for adult people might be possible for a giant(s). A giant twice as giant as a typical human could have eight times the muscle energy, since muscles are three-D, doubling in length, width and peak; and thusly 2 x 2 x 2 = eight.

What Do Our Ancestors Say Revisited
Ancient Greeks often attributed varied large stone constructions to the Cyclopes, as an example. Such large buildings are termed the Cyclopean walls since the Cyclopes and only the Cyclopes could have built these constructions. Perseus had them answerable for building the walls of Mycenae, including the Lion Gate; Proitos attributed them constructing the partitions of Tiryns. The medieval Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus cited the Roman ruins as evidence that giants must as soon as have walked the Earth. And who built the giant’s Causeway on the Northern Irish Coast

Is that this too far out I am open to other solutions, but at the least it does not require high-tech alien assistance, unless of course those worldwide mythological giants, like the Cyclopes, had been aliens!

Appendix: A number of notable megalithic monuments.
1) Some unfinished in-situ megaliths.

*Baalbek (Lebanon) has two unfinished stones weighing in at 1000 to 1250 tons apiece.
*There’s an unfinished Egyptian obelisk at Assuan that is all up comes to roughly 1100 tons.

2) Some completed and transported megaliths.
Europe

*Stonehenge: some stones are as much as forty tons.
*The Avebury stone circle, England, has as its largest stone one over 40 tons.

*The famous fortress of Mycenae, Greece has stones close to a hundred tons in weight.
*The Parthenon in Athens, Greece has a few of its largest stones weighing in at 10 tons.

Pacific Area
*Those Easter Island (Rapa Nui to the locals) Moai can weigh up to 70, even one as much as 86 tons.

Historical Egypt
*The Colossi of Memnon are two Egyptian statues of Pharaoh Amenhotep III coming in at 700 tons each.

*Ramesses II (Ramesses the great) was not shy about erecting statues to honour himself. Certainly one of his numerous dozens of monumental statues commissioned to image self (at Luxor) – one hundred tons value of stone. However that’s featherweight class.

*Ramesses II was solely just getting warmed up. There’s a statue at Thebes, Egypt, part of the Ramessum, the mortuary temple of the pharaoh in query, of 1000 tons. Now that’s heavyweight standing.

*Egyptian obelisks weren’t minuscule. There’s one at 227 tons (Luxor); one at 328 tons (Karnak).
*Nice Pyramid at Giza, Egypt is properly referred to as overkill when it comes to constructing a tomb. Although the typical weight of each stone block is ‘only’ 2.5 tons, the biggest slabs comprising the burial chamber, come in at 80 tons.

*Other than the nice Pyramid, other Egyptian pyramids, in fact most, if not all other, Egyptian pyramids have some monolithic blocks of over 20 tons, including monolithic roof slabs, plugs and burial vaults, some of which weigh in at over one hundred tons.

South and Central America
*These well known however mysterious Olmec heads in Mesoamerica aren’t trivial works when carved down to some 50 tons all up.

*The Inca city of Machu Picchu, Peru has large stones part and parcel of its development weighing in from 20 to 50 tons apeice.

*There’s a very famous Aztec calendar stone at Tenochtitlan, Mexico that weighs considerably greater than the wall calendar you hold up at residence. Weight, 24 tons.

*Palenque, Mexico is a famous Mayan site, especially because of Erich Von Daniken. The largest stones on site weigh 12 to 15 tons.

Further suggested readings
Childress, David Hatcher; Expertise of the Gods: The Incredible Sciences of the Ancients; Adventures Unlimited Press, Kempton, Illinois; 2000:

De Camp, L. Sprague; The Historical Engineers; Ballantine Books, New York; 1974:
De Camp, L. Sprague & De Camp; Catherine C; Citadels of Mystery; Fontana/Collins, London; 1972:

Hancock, Graham; Fingerprints of the Gods: A Quest for the start and the top; Mandarin, London; 1996:

Hancock, Graham & Faiia, Santha; Heaven’s Mirror: Quest for the Lost Civilization; Penguin Books, London; 1999:

National Geographic Society; Mysteries of Mankind: Earth’s Unexplained Landmarks; National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.; 1992:

Nationwide Geographic Society; Mysteries of the Historic World; National Geographic Society, Washington, D.C.; 1979:

Von Daniken, Erich; Chariots of the Gods ; Souvenir Press, London; 1969:
Von Daniken, Erich; Gods from Outer Area; Souvenir Press, London; 1970:

Further viewings:
NOVA; Secrets of Lost Empires; PBS/WGBH, Boston; 2006:

NOVA; Secrets and techniques of Misplaced Empires II; PBS/WGBH, Boston; 2008:
There’s also been dozens of books/videos written/produced particularly in regards to the archaeological mysteries of Stonehenge, historical Egyptian monuments together with the pyramids, Easter Island, the ruins of Mesoamerica and South America, and many others. Consult your local library.